Lets Know Hazelnut

Turkish Hazelnut

TURKISH HAZELNUT

It has been mentioned in historical documents that hazelnut was produced 2300 years ago in the Black Sea coast on the north of Turkey and it is known that hazelnut has been exported from Turkey to other countries for the last 6 centuries. Turkey, which is one of the few countries in the world with favourable weather conditions for hazelnut production, accounts for 75% of the global production and 70-75% of the exportation.

Hazelnut fields, widely spread in the Black Sea coasts of Turkey, have been located within 30 km from the coast towards inland. In the western Black Sea, it starts from Zonguldak (east of İstanbul) and extends to the east over the entire Black Sea like a green strip lying between the sea and the mountains almost until the Georgian boundary. 4.000.000 people are directly or indirectly related to hazelnut which has been produced on an area of 550-600 thousand hectares in Turkey, which is a fact that boosts the socio-economic importance of hazelnut. Turkey has a distinguished place among the other hazelnut producers in the world, thanks to its high quality, and maintains its leading position in production and exportation.

PRODUCTION AREAS

Hazelnut tree, which grows in 36′ 41′ northern latitudes and under special climate conditions, yields product within 30 km from the coast and at an altitude of maximum 750-1000 metres. In Turkey, the regions where hazelnut is grown can be divided into two sub-regions: a) 1. Standard Region (eastern part of the Black Sea Region): Ordu, Giresun, Rize, Trabzon and Artvin provinces. b) 2. Standard Region (middle and western part of the Black Sea Region): Samsun, Sinop, Kastamonu, Bolu, Düzce, Sakarya, Zonguldak and Kocaeli provinces.

HARVEST

Turkish hazelnut generally grows ripe between the beginning and the end of August, depending on the latitude of the field. Timely harvest is done by picking up the hazelnuts with leaves that fall to ground when the branches are shaken off. Another method of harvesting is the one where the hazelnuts are picked one by one from the branches. After being collected from the fields, hazelnuts are blended on the same day or a few days later depending on the field status and laid to make a bed of 10-15 cm thickness to be pre-dried under the sun until their leaves turn brown. After drying, hazelnuts are separated from their leaves using harvesting machine (thresher) and laid over canopies in thin layers to be dried under the sun. Total period of drying, including the pre-drying, can be maximum 15-20 days depending on the weather conditions. Drying naturally and under the sun is an important factor that gives the Turkish hazelnut its special taste.

APPLICATIONS

Besides being consumed as snack both in Turkey and in the world, about 90% of hazelnuts are used in roasted, whitened, minced, sliced, powder and puree form as a side-ingredient in chocolate, biscuit, confectionary industry, in making sweets, pastries and ice-cream and in meals and salads. With a background of about five thousand years, hazelnut has great benefits for humankind through many ways such as its fruit and wood. Hazelnut shell is used as a very valuable and high calorie fuel particularly in hazelnut growing areas in our country. Furthermore, hazelnut wood is used in making baskets, walking sticks, chairs, fences and hand tools. Some types of hazelnut are grown as decorative plants in parks and gardens. Hazelnut leaves and fruit leaves are used as fertilizer. Hazelnut oil is made from the excess amount of hazelnut. Crude hazelnut oil is refined to be used in meals and hazelnut pulp is used as additive in the animal food industry.

INDUSTRY AND COMMERCE

Currently, there are 180 breaking plants with an internal capacity of 1.800.000 tons per annum and 40 processing plants with an internal capacity of 350.000 tons per annum in our country. In 1970’s, 90% of our hazelnut export was in the form of hazelnuts with shell and natural hazelnut seeds but with the positive and fast developments in hazelnut processing industry, processed hazelnut exports started to account for 30% of our total exports in 2000. In parallel to the complete fulfilment of buyers’ requirements with the effective and careful quality control systems in every phase of production, particularly processed hazelnut seed exports are increasing every year. The processed hazelnuts prepared in our country have higher quality than the processed hazelnuts prepared by many exporters-manufacturers in their own plants by purchasing natural hazelnuts.

Nutrition

TURKISH HAZELNUT

Studies about the nutritional value and health benefits of hazelnut performed by a scientific committee composed of research assistants from University of Lincolnshire in England, Memorial University of Newfoundland in Canada, Tokyo University of Fisheries in Japan, and University of Florida in the USA have been completed and the results are below.

Chemical Composition

%

Composition of Amino Acids

   g/100g

Protein

15.98

Iysine

0.47

Fat

60.51

histidine

0.74

Saturated

4.76

arginine

1.69

Mono-Unsaturated

50.32

aspartic asit

1.58

Poli-Unsaturated

5.43

threonine

0.46

Water

4.45

serine

0.58

Minerals

2.23

glutamic asit

3.72

Carbohydrate

16.83

proline

0.59

Sugar

3.58

glycine

0.97

Energy (kcal)

672

alanina

0.67

cysteine

0.45

Composition of Fatty Acids

%

valine

0.67

Myristic (C14:0)

0.03

methionine

Pentadecanoic (C15:00)

0.02

isoleucine

0.59

Palmitic (C16:0)

4.86

leucine

0.99

Margaric (C17:0)

0.04

tyrosine

0.43

Heptadecenoic (C17:1)

0.07

phenylalanine

0.79

Stearic (C18:0)

2.74

asparagine

Oleic (C18:1w 9)

82.72

glutamine

Linoleic (C18:2w 6)

8.89

glycerophosphoethanolamine

Linolenic (C18:3w 3)

0.10

tryptophan

0.03

Arachidic (C20:0)

0.14

Gadoleic (C20:1w 9)

0.16

Behenic (C22:0)

0.03

Composition of Sugar

   g/100g

Erucic (C22:1w9)

0.03

Fructose

0.142

Lignoceric (C24:0)

0.01

Glucose

0.111

Nervonic (C24:1w 9)

0.02

Sucrose

2.667

palmitoleic (C16:1)

0.16

Myo-inositol

0.041

Raffinose

0.135

Composition of Minerals

(mg/100g)

Stachyose

0.481

Aluminiyum (Al)

5.023

Total

3.576

Cadmium (Cd)

0.011

Calcium (Ca)

193.4

Chromium (Cr)

0.003

Composition of Organic Acids

   g/100g

Cobalt (Co)

0.220

Oxalic

0.06

Copper (Cu)

1.603

Citric

0.70

Iron (Fe)

4.967

Malic

3.86

Lead (Pb)

0.030

Lactic

0.43

Manganese (Mn)

3.293

Acetic

0.12

Magnesium (Mg)

176.5

Ascorbic

0.00

Nickel (Ni)

1.247

Total

5.17

Phosphorus (P)

355.7

Potassium (K)

761.0

Silver (Ag)

0.005

Composition of Phytosterol

mg/100g oil

Sodium (Na)

3.133

Cholesterol

0.00

Vanadium (V)

0.077

Campesterol

7.15

Zinc (Zn)

1.940

Stigmasterol

0.89

b-Sitosterol

105.48

Vitamins

(mg/100g)

Total

113.52

Vitamin E

33.9

Thiamin (B1)

0.3

Riboflavin (B2)

0.1

Pyridoxine(B6)

0.3

Niacin

1.8

Hazelnut and Health

HAZELNUT AND HEALTH

Hazelnut has a significant place among the types of dried nut in terms of nutrition and health because of the special composition of fats (primarily oleic acid), protein, carbohydrates, vitamins (vitamin E), minerals, diabetic fibres, phytosterol (beta-cytosterol) and antioxidant phenolics.

The nutritional and sensory properties of hazelnut make it a unique and ideal material for food products. Hazelnuts are a good source of energy with their 60.5% fat content.

Many researchers have said that hazelnut consumption has positive effects on human nutrition. These effects may be related to the fatty acid profile of hazelnut lipids which are rich in mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids (82,8% oleic and 8,9% linoleic).

Research has shown that types of diet where saturated fat level is low and monounsaturated fat level (MUFA) is high are effective in controlling the blood lipid levels; a similar result can be a positive factor in coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Furthermore, diets enriched with monounsaturated fat levels (which are contained in hazelnut oil) have similar and positive effects on people such as minimum CHD cases, low blood pressure, low total cholesterol balance, reduction or increment of lipoprotein density (LDL) and reduction of blood triglyceride value.

Hazelnut is the second best source of vitamin E after vegetable oils. Vitamin E is a soluble lipid phenolic antioxidant. Antioxidant activities of phenolics are the result of their ability to transform hydrogen atoms to independent roots. Since these compounds can form independent roots, they are believed to be potential inhibitors of cancer and atherosclerosis in diabetic people. Because of the antioxidant property of vitamin E and its relation to coronary heart disease and cancer, consumers and industries have increasing interest in natural food including hazelnuts and hazelnut products.

Daily consumption of just 25-30 gr of hazelnut meets 100% of daily vitamin E requirement. Recent researches have shown that the rich beta-cytosterol content of hazelnut can play an important role in reducing cholesterol and preventing many diseases such as cancer (colon, prostate, breast). This also applies to preventing the growth of tumours and stimulating apoptosis. Hazelnuts are also a good source of mineral, particularly calcium, magnesium, phosphor and potassium. Hazelnuts are able to balance blood pressure and are very important for the bone development and health with their poor sodium and very rich mineral content. These minerals are well known to have positive effects on health.

Hazelnuts also contain all the necessary amino acids and the most vital minerals. Hazelnuts can be used as a source of protein with legumes having low cystine and methionine content. As we have mentioned before, hazelnut is a good source of natural antioxidants. This indicates the nutraceutical potential of hazelnuts and hazelnut products. In conclusion, hazelnut is a vital food and additive for a balanced daily diet and the most useful nutraceutical substance for coronary health. Eating a handful of hazelnuts per day can protect you from many of the diseases mentioned above.

Hazelnut & Types

In-Shell Hazelnuts

Round Hazelnuts: These are spherical hazelnuts with approximately

the same length, width and thickness. These are of medium size and high quality.

They have high seed yields (efficiencies), as well as high fat and protein rates. All types that can be easily separated from skin and whitened belong to this group. They are easily broken because of their circular shapes.

In this group, Giresun Fat Hazelnut is the highest quality type in the world. Furthermore, Palaz, Mincane, Foşa, Kan, Çakıldak, Kara are in this group.

Pointed Hazelnuts: This is the type with the length a little longer than the width and the thickness.

These hazelnuts produce more scrap when breaking. Therefore, they are mostly marketed in shells. They have types called Sivri and İncekara.

Almond Hazelnuts: This is the type with the length much longer than the width and the thickness. These are generally big and showy but have low quality. They are not legible for breaking and processing. They are consumed as snack, in shells and in undried form. They have two types called Circular Almond and Flat Almond.

Decorticated Hazelnut Kernels

Decorticated Hazelnut Kernels (Standard 1)

Definition : These are hazelnuts with a diameter of 13-15 mm which have been separated from the hard shell. Applications : These are the raw materials for processed and highly processed hazelnuts.

Decorticated Hazelnut Kernels (Standard 2)

Definition : These are hazelnuts with a diameter of 11-13 mm which have been separated from the hard shell. Applications : These are the raw materials for processed and highly processed hazelnuts.

Decorticated Hazelnut Kernels (Standard 3)

Definition : These are hazelnuts with a diameter of 9-11 mm which have been separated from the hard shell. Applications : These are the raw materials for processed and highly processed hazelnuts